The structure of an elevator in terms of fault sourcesHouse of Elevators
Here, elevator structure is discussed in terms of fault source.
The components of an elevator can be divided into two categories, mechanical parts and electrical parts. Elevator cars have been included, but I’ll list them out later.
- Mechanical parts can be intuitively divided into moving parts and stationary parts.
- Static mechanical parts, generally including steel frames in the hoistway, guide rails, and pit buffers.
- The movable part, if it is a traction elevator, is the counterweight, steel traction cable, speed governor and its tensioner wheel. The old-fashioned traction elevator does not have an inverter for speed regulation, and has a gear box instead.
- If it is a hydraulic one, because there is an oil tank, there must be a machine room. There are mainly control boxe, oil tank, oil pump and motor, pressure pipelines and speed control valves in the machine room.
- The movable parts in the hoistway are pistons and cylinders as well as sealing rings, chains or cables and sheaves.
- Electrical parts can be divided into the power and the control.
- The power part can be divided into external power supply and internal inverter and motor, including contactors, circuit breakers and relays.
If it is a hydraulic elevator, the electric part is the oil pump motor and the controller operates solenoid valves to control oil flow and speed.
- The control part is composed of 2 parts.
- Data acquisition part, which is responsible for monitoring the running status of the elevator, including communication cables, safety circuits, speed pulses and other signals.
- Motherboard hardware and control logic software.
- Here the car is listed separately, mainly because the design and working principle of the car and the connection with the main controller through the standard flex cable are the same even if they are various types of elevators.
- The car includes interior decoration, buttons and displays, lighting and fans, car roof electrical boxes, main load-bearing structures, pulley cables and car doors.
- The car door includes head rail and bottom track, door operator and control, light curtain. There is also a hall door on each floor. The hall door and the car door are opened or closed together after confirmed leveling. They will not open automatically when the floor is not leveled.
Screw elevators are almost all home elevators, because the speed is relatively slow, and there is no closed car. It is a platform plus a control panel that moves up and down in the hoistway. Some hoistways are installed with fancy lumination. The main components are the concealed control box and panel, the meshing device composed of gears and the safety switches distributed around platforms and doors.
Here go through the majority of parts and components of an elevator in order to discuss the fault rate and repair period in the later topics. Please stay tuned and follow us.